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礦物標本收藏謹防放射性危害
文章來源:http://www.buxwoy.icu/ 仁和智華地質標本

近年,隨著人們物質生活水平不斷提高,文化生活亦發生了明顯改觀,收藏的熱度和質量也在逐年提升。收藏品種類繁多,目前比較趨同的收藏品大致分為自然歷史、藝術歷史、人文歷史和科普歷史四大類,具體分為文物類、珠寶、名石和觀賞石類、錢幣類、郵票類、文獻類、票券類、商標類、徽章類、標本類、陶瓷類、玉器類、繪畫類。礦石、礦物收藏屬收藏品之標本類,是一個既有科學性又有藝術性的收藏門類。對于礦石、礦物的收藏,不同收藏者目的性差異很大,有的人收藏作為愛好、陶冶情操,有的人為了學習、研究工作,有的人作為謀生的一種途徑,有的人為了投資、成為美麗的硬通貨等等。

In recent years, with the continuous improvement of people's material living standards, cultural life has also undergone significant changes, and the heat and quality of collections are also increasing year by year. There are many kinds of collections. At present, the comparatively convergent collections can be divided into four categories: natural history, art history, humanistic history and popular science history. They can be divided into cultural relics, jewelry, famous stones and ornamental stones, coins, stamps, documents, stamps, stamps, trademarks, badges, specimens, ceramics and jades. Painting. Ore and mineral collections are specimens of collections, which are both scientific and artistic. For mineral and mineral collections, different collectors have different purposes. Some collect as hobbies, cultivate sentiment, some for study and research, some as a way to earn a living, some for investment, become a beautiful hard currency and so on.

對于礦石、礦物標本的收藏,大家往往忽視了一個關鍵的細節,就是這些標本的放射性問題。一般而言,人類的生存環境就是一個充滿輻射的環境,天然放射性元素是構成自然界的組成部分,在各類巖石、礦石、土壤、水體、大氣、乃至人體中都有不同數量的放射性元素存在,這些天然存在的微量放射性輻射就是天然本底輻射,它已是自然平衡體系的一部分,不會危害人類健康,因為人類和其它生命在進化過程中,已經適應了本底輻射環境。但是,過量的輻射對人體是有害的,這是不言而喻。事實上,人們平時接觸的絕大部分礦石、礦物標本是沒有或者含有微量的放射性,只有極少數含鈾、釷等放射性元素的礦石、礦物有強放射性,提醒大家在收藏這些礦石、礦物標本時,一定要提高防范意識,減少不必要傷害。

For the collection of ore and mineral specimens, one of the key details is the radioactivity of these specimens. Generally speaking, the living environment of human beings is full of radiation. Natural radioactive elements are the components of nature. There are different amounts of radioactive elements in rocks, ores, soil, water, atmosphere and even human body. These natural trace radioactive elements are the natural origin. Bottom radiation, which is a part of the natural balance system, will not endanger human health, because human beings and other life have adapted to the background radiation environment in the process of evolution. However, it is self-evident that excessive radiation is harmful to human body. In fact, the vast majority of ore and mineral specimens that people usually come into contact with are not or contain trace radioactivity. Only a few ore and mineral containing radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium have strong radioactivity. It reminds us that when collecting these ore and mineral specimens, we must raise awareness of prevention and reduce unnecessary harm. 1.礦石標本收藏 1. Collection of ore specimens 與黑色巖系有關的礦產(如磷、釩、錳、重晶石等)礦石標本收藏時要特別小心,因為黑色巖系中賦存眾多的親銅、親鐵、分散、鉑族、放射性及稀土等元素,同時,黑色巖系具有極強的吸附能力,往往含有離子吸附態的鈾,有的可以達到工業品位;與偉晶巖有關的礦產(包含鋰、鈹、鋮、鉬、銣、銫、鉿等多種稀有元素等)礦石標本收藏亦要注意,因為偉晶巖往往是稀有、稀土元素礦床的重要母巖,而且放射性元素(鈾、釷)經常與稀土、稀有元素共同富集(照片1),常常形成獨立放射性礦物(晶質鈾礦、鈾釷石等),有時可以形成放射性元素礦床。大家要特別注意,鈾礦石是具有放射性危險的,還是少接觸為妙。

Mineral samples related to black rock series (such as phosphorus, vanadium, manganese, barite, etc.) should be collected with special care, because black rock series contains many elements such as copper, ferrophile, dispersed, platinum group, radioactivity and rare earth. At the same time, black rock series has very strong adsorption capacity and often contains uranium as ionic adsorbed state. Some can reach industrial grade; mineral samples of pegmatite-related minerals (including lithium, beryllium, thorium, molybdenum, rubidium, cesium, hafnium and other rare elements) should also be noted, because pegmatite is often an important parent rock of rare and rare earth element deposits, and radioactive elements (uranium, thorium) are often associated with rare earth and rare earth elements. Element co-enrichment (photo 1) often forms independent radioactive minerals (crystalline uranium ore, uranium thorite, etc.) and sometimes radioactive element deposits. Particular attention should be paid to whether uranium ore is radioactive or less exposed. 2.礦物標本收藏 2. Collection of mineral specimens

絕大部分礦物晶體都沒有放射性,只有極少數含鈾、釷等放射性元素的礦物有放射性,多屬放射性礦物看起來十分漂亮,它們往往有著艷麗的色彩,并在紫外光下發出明亮熒光,例如粒磷鉛鈾礦、碲鈾礦、硅鉛鈾礦等,如果要評選世界上最美麗動人的礦物,那么鈾礦物絕對名列前茅,它被譽為礦物家族中的“玫瑰花”。

Most mineral crystals are non-radioactive. Only a few minerals containing radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium are radioactive. Most of them are radioactive minerals which look very beautiful. They often have brilliant colors and emit bright fluorescence under ultraviolet light, such as granular lead-uranium ore, uranium tellurite, uranium silicate, etc. If necessary. In the selection of the most beautiful and moving minerals in the world, uranium minerals rank first in the list. It is known as the "rose" in the mineral family.

綜合收集、分析前人資料,初步整理出具有較強放射性危害的礦物大致有三類23種:

By collecting and analyzing the data of predecessors, 23 kinds of minerals with strong radioactive hazards have been preliminarily sorted out.

一是9種鈾礦物,包括晶質鈾礦、瀝青鈾礦、鈾黑、鈦鈾礦、硅鈣鈾礦、銅鈾云母、鈣鈾云母、釩鈣鈾礦、釩鉀鈾礦(照片2)。這些礦物通常呈粉末狀、土狀集合體,黑色、灰黑色或深灰色,黃褐色,或者淡綠色或黃綠色,硬度一般在1―5之間,樹脂光澤、珍珠光澤、玻璃光澤至半金屬光澤,這些礦物一般因含鈾較多,放射性是很強的。

One is nine uranium minerals, including crystalline uranium ore, pitchblende, uranium black, titanium-uranium ore, silica-perovskite-uranium ore, copper-uranium mica, perovskite-uranium mica, vanadium-calcium-uranium ore and vanadium-potassium-uranium ore (photo 2). These minerals are usually powdery, earthy aggregates, black, grey-black or dark grey, yellowish-brown, or light green or yellowish-green, with hardness ranging from 1-5, resin gloss, Pearl gloss, glass gloss to semi-metallic gloss. These minerals are generally highly radioactive due to their high uranium content.

二是6種稀土礦物,包括鈮釔礦、磷釔礦、硅鈹釔礦、褐釔鈮礦、鈮鈣礦、復稀金礦。這些礦物硬度比各類鈾礦物高,一般在4―7之間,顏色較深,有黑色、綠黑色、暗褐色、黃褐色、灰色、紅色等,松脂、玻璃光澤至樹脂光澤,玻璃或半金屬光澤。這些礦物依其放射性元素含量的不同,放射性強弱不等。如鈮釔礦,主要由鐵、鈾、釔族稀土元素等組成的鈮鉭礦物,含二氧化鈾達23%,所以具有強放射性;硅鈹釔礦含三氧化二釔一般為51.8%,常含其它稀土元素和釷等,具強放射性;鈮鈣礦含五氧化二鈮達71%,具微弱放射性。

The second is six rare earth minerals, including yttrium niobium, yttrium phosphate, yttrium silicate, yttrium lignite, niobium calcite and diluted gold ore. The hardness of these minerals is higher than that of all kinds of uranium minerals, generally between 4 and 7. They are darker in color, such as black, green-black, dark-brown, yellowish-brown, grey and red, turpentine and glass gloss to resin gloss, glass or semi-metallic gloss. These minerals vary in radioactivity depending on their radioelement content. For example, niobium-yttrium ores, mainly composed of iron, uranium, yttrium rare earth elements and other elements, contain 23% uranium dioxide, so they have strong radioactivity; yttrium-silica ores generally contain 51.8% yttrium trioxide, often contain other rare earth elements and thorium, and have strong radioactivity; niobium-calcium ores contain 71% niobium pentoxide, with weak radioactivity.

三是以“石”相稱的8種稀土礦物,包括易解石、獨居石、燒綠石、鳳凰石、釷石、褐簾石、方釷石、鋯石。它們一般成分復雜,顏色有黑、灰、褐、棕紅等暗色調的,

Thirdly, eight rare earth minerals, including calcite, monazite, pyrochlore, phoenix, thorite, epidote, thorite and zircon, are commensurate with "stone". They are usually complex in composition and have dark shades of black, grey, brown and brown-red.

也有白、黃、淺綠、粉紅、橙黃等淺色調的,硬度變化較大,在4-8之間。這類礦物常含釷、鋯、鈰、鑭、釷等稀土元素和鈾,多具有放射性,是提取稀土和放射性元素的礦物原料。易解石是一種稀少的復雜氧化物礦物,除了含稀土元素、釷、鈮、鈦外,尚含鈾、錫、鋯、硅等雜質,具有強放射性;獨居石常含釷、鋯等,二氧化釷含量最多可達30%,常具放射性;燒綠石又稱黃綠石,含五氧化二鈮達到56%,同時常含鉭、稀土元素、鈾等,具有強放射性;鋯石是提煉金屬鋯的主要原料,根據內部結構特點,分為高型、中型和低型鋯石三種,前兩種鋯石基本不含或含有微量放射性物質,對人體是無害的,后一種透明度差、非晶質的鋯石,因含有鉿、釷、鈾等混入物,具有較強放射性,對人體有一定程度的傷害。

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